would someone breed two different breeds of dog together?
Isn't that really just a "mutt" and aren't
purebred dogs better...?
The short answer: No. Hybrid (or crossbred) dogs are the
resultant progeny of two or more breeds having been bred
together. They are typically much healthier, more energetic,
have larger litters of puppies, with puppies having higher
birth weights and mothers producing more milk for their
puppies. Hybrid dogs statistically exhibit a far lower incidence
of genetic disease and live longer lives than purebred dogs.
Furthermore it's not a matter of opinion, but of long established
You can certainly find plenty of rants and raves promoting
purebred dogs on the Internet and putting down hybrid or
crossbred dogs. With a diversity of purebred kennel clubs
such as the AKC, CKC, UKC, KC and many, many others the
promotion, showing, breeding and selling of purebred dogs
is a multi-BILLION dollar industry. That industry is steeped
in dogma (pun intended) and undergirded by widespread myths
repeated time and again by purebred dog fanciers. However,
here's a few facts that should begin to answer the
question, why would someone breed different breeds
of dogs together on purpose?
breeding practices within the pedigreed community results
in a reduction in genetic diversity, more often resulting
in physical characteristics that lead to health issues."
Crufts Be Banned? | The Telegraph | September 15, 2011
"Purebred dogs have
fundamental genetic defects. These defects can result
in lifelong suffering, sickness, and physical handicap..."
W. Fox | Inhumane Society | St Martins, NY | 1990
There are literally hundreds of peer reviewed, scientific
books and articles communicating the results of many decades
of serious health and genetic studies on dogs. You should
also understand that this is not a "debated topic"
among scientists. In fact every serious scientific
study of dog health and welfare says essentially the exact
same thing: Purebred dogs statistically have inferior
health and outcrossed dogs have superior health.
high levels of inbreeding, the extensive use of a limited
number of sires, and genetic isolation are all hallmarks
of modern breeds of domestic dog. It is widely agreed
that part of the collateral damage from these practices
is that purebred dogs have a greater risk of suffering
from genetically simple inherited disorders than their
S. Mellersh, PhD
of Canine Genetics | Animal Health Trust
Testing and the Domestic Dog
Genome 23:109-123 | 2012
Unfortunately most people looking to purchase a dog, in
fact most people breeding dogs do not begin with scientific
research. If any research is done it is usually reading
up on what kennel clubs have to say, the chief promoters
of purebred dog breeding - promoting the breeding of purebred
dogs in order to create a consistent commercial product
for kennel club breeders to sell. Want to know the common
theme of what scientists have to say about kennel clubs
and the impact of their primarily aesthetic "breed
standards" upon our dogs...?
"Today, many of the
resultant dog breeds are no longer capable of performing
the tasks for which they were originally bred, due to
the anatomical and/or physiological deformations that
kennel clubs have imposed upon them. Many kennel clubs
worldwide still prescribe to conservative, centuries
old ideologies and traditions that are harmful to the
canine species... The CKC states that breeders should
"select breeding stock that conforms to the approved
CKC Breed Standard to the highest possible degree,"
but these standards consist of exhaustive guidelines that
detail the esthetic requirements of each breed. The American
Kennel Club (AKC) advocates the advance[ment] of
canine health and well-being, but AKC Breed Standards
also overemphasize typology, which is not conducive to
advancing canine health. These ongoing attempts to create
the ultimate canine conformation, with continually elevated
ideals, are precisely what result in detrimentally exaggerated
physiques and diseased animals."
new direction for kennel club regulations and breed standards
Veterinarian Journal | 2007 Sep. | 48(9): 953965
An F1 dog (filial
1) is a genetic term for the first generation
of hybrid breeding between two species or subspecies. Such
dogs have the highest level of heterosis
(hybrid vigor) and demonstrate dramatic improvements
in health, vitality, length of life, reproductive function,
immune function, bone density, size, strength and intelligence.
This is why truly knowledgeable animal breeders outcross
purebred breeds... because hybrids are a whole lot better,
plain and simple...
"There should be a concerted
effort to produce and evaluate first-cross (F1) hybrids
from matings between various pairs of breeds. Contrary
to popular belief, F1 hybrids between pairs of breeds
are quite predictable in terms of morphology and behavior."
McGreevy and F.W. Nicholas
of Animal Science, University of Sydney
Practical Solutions to Welfare Problems in Dog Breeding
Welfare | 1999, 8th edition | p.329-341