dog genetics, outcross and hybrid breeding
corrective dog breeding protocols scientific dog breeding to minimize genetic illness
 

hybrid dog breedingWhat is Hybrid Breeding
& Why Should Dog Breeders Do It...?

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surprised purebred dogWhy would someone breed two different breeds of dog together? Isn't that really just a "mutt" and aren't purebred dogs better...?

The short answer: No. Hybrid (or crossbred) dogs are the resultant progeny of two or more breeds having been bred together. They are typically much healthier, more energetic, have larger litters of puppies, with puppies having higher birth weights and mothers producing more milk for their puppies. Hybrid dogs statistically exhibit a far lower incidence of genetic disease and live longer lives than purebred dogs. Furthermore it's not a matter of opinion, but of long established science.

You can certainly find plenty of rants and raves promoting purebred dogs on the Internet and putting down hybrid or crossbred dogs. With a diversity of purebred kennel clubs such as the AKC, CKC, UKC, KC and many, many others the promotion, showing, breeding and selling of purebred dogs is a multi-BILLION dollar industry. That industry is steeped in dogma (pun intended) and undergirded by widespread myths repeated time and again by purebred dog fanciers. However, here's a few facts that should begin to answer the question, why would someone breed different breeds of dogs together on purpose?

"Current accepted breeding practices within the pedigreed community results in a reduction in genetic diversity, more often resulting in physical characteristics that lead to health issues."
          Should Crufts Be Banned? | The Telegraph | September 15, 2011

"Purebred dogs have fundamental genetic defects. These defects can result in lifelong suffering, sickness, and physical handicap..."
             Michael W. Fox | Inhumane Society | St Martins, NY | 1990

There are literally hundreds of peer reviewed, scientific books and articles communicating the results of many decades of serious health and genetic studies on dogs. You should also understand that this is not a "debated topic" among scientists. In fact every serious scientific study of dog health and welfare says essentially the exact same thing: Purebred dogs statistically have inferior health and outcrossed dogs have superior health.

"Intense selection, high levels of inbreeding, the extensive use of a limited number of sires, and genetic isolation are all hallmarks of modern breeds of domestic dog. It is widely agreed that part of the collateral damage from these practices is that purebred dogs have a greater risk of suffering from genetically simple inherited disorders than their cross-breed cousins."
             Cathryn S. Mellersh, PhD
             Head of Canine Genetics | Animal Health Trust

             DNA Testing and the Domestic Dog
             Mammalian Genome 23:109-123 | 2012

Unfortunately most people looking to purchase a dog, in fact most people breeding dogs do not begin with scientific research. If any research is done it is usually reading up on what kennel clubs have to say, the chief promoters of purebred dog breeding - promoting the breeding of purebred dogs in order to create a consistent commercial product for kennel club breeders to sell. Want to know the common theme of what scientists have to say about kennel clubs and the impact of their primarily aesthetic "breed standards" upon our dogs...?

"Today, many of the resultant dog breeds are no longer capable of performing the tasks for which they were originally bred, due to the anatomical and/or physiological deformations that kennel clubs have imposed upon them. Many kennel clubs worldwide still prescribe to conservative, centuries’ old ideologies and traditions that are harmful to the canine species... The CKC states that breeders should "select breeding stock that conforms to the approved CKC Breed Standard to the highest possible degree," but these standards consist of exhaustive guidelines that detail the esthetic requirements of each breed. The American Kennel Club (AKC) advocates the “advance[ment] of canine health and well-being,” but AKC Breed Standards also overemphasize typology, which is not conducive to advancing canine health. These ongoing attempts to create the ultimate canine conformation, with continually elevated ideals, are precisely what result in detrimentally exaggerated physiques and diseased animals."
             A new direction for kennel club regulations and breed standards
             Canadian Veterinarian Journal | 2007 Sep. | 48(9): 953–965
             Dr. Koharik Arman

An F1 dog (filial 1) is a genetic term for the first generation of hybrid breeding between two species or subspecies. Such dogs have the highest level of heterosis (hybrid vigor) and demonstrate dramatic improvements in health, vitality, length of life, reproductive function, immune function, bone density, size, strength and intelligence. This is why truly knowledgeable animal breeders outcross purebred breeds... because hybrids are a whole lot better, plain and simple...

"There should be a concerted effort to produce and evaluate first-cross (F1) hybrids from matings between various pairs of breeds. Contrary to popular belief, F1 hybrids between pairs of breeds are quite predictable in terms of morphology and behavior."
             P.D. McGreevy and F.W. Nicholas
             Dept. of Animal Science, University of Sydney
             Some Practical Solutions to Welfare Problems in Dog Breeding
             Animal Welfare | 1999, 8th edition | p.329-341


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National Kennel Club American Bulldog Breed StandardUnited Kennel Club American Bulldog History and Breed StandardInternational Designer Canine RegistryABKC American Bully Kennel Club American Bulldog Breed Conformation Standard
 
hybrid dog and animal breeding